The second major challenge to be observed in this case study is the shift from general public
procurement to a user charging oriented system. First steps have been taken with the
introduction of the HGV motorway toll and the establishment of the VFIG, but there are still
many open questions regarding this organisation, such as its multi-modal character, its
political dependence and the issue of whether it should be able to borrow money from the
Experiences with PPP schemes in Germany are limited. Not the least so, because an already
dense transport networks exists such that extensions generate less additional benefit.