Any data on actual or planned expenditure have considerable limitations in comparability
even within the available time series due the German reunification in 1990 and to the
numerous revisions of the different systems of categorization (NABS in 2007, NACE in
2008; Leistungsplansystematik in 2011, German classification of economic activities in
1993, 2003 and 2008).
No data prior to 1980 could be identified; if it exists at all, it may be hidden in paper
archives in the federal and state ministries. The longest continuous data series are
available for the GBAORD, which date back to 1980 for total and 1981 for agricultural
expenditure. GERD data for agricultural expenditure with some time dimension is only
available in the FOS systematic for the government and the higher education sector (HERD
biannual from 1981 and consecutive from 1993 on; GOVERD from 1993 on).
Germany basically does not report GERD data by NABS. In addition to the GERD data Germany
reports on actual agricultural government R&D expenditure data using its own system
broken down by funding areas and funding priorities, which also provides figures back to
1981. BERD data on agricultural expenditure is only available on a biannual base from
1997 and on annual base from 2001 on. As described above, however, it is assumed that
BERD does not approximate the actual business R&D efforts.
Information on GERD and GBAORD at the state (Länder) level is not available. However
approximation can be made using the Expenditures for R&D of the public sector scientific
institutions. BERD figures are available at state level, but due to anonymisation are not