Net income from employment, rental income, and certain other
income is determined by deducting any expenses incurred to
produce, maintain, and safeguard that income (costs of earning
non-business income, Werbungskosten) from gross receipts.
For employees, these expenses include commuting expenses, tools,
work clothes, certain membership dues, and certain away-from-
home expenses. In the case of rental income, interest expenses,
depreciation, and other related expenses can be deducted.
In 2009, a fnal withholding tax (Abgeltungsteuer) was introduced
for income from capital and capital gains. Income from those cat-
egories is taxed at a fxed rate of 25% plus solidarity surcharge
of 5.5%, and will not be included in the calculation of the gross
The zero-bracket amount (Grundfreibetrag) is € 8,652 from
2016 onwards. For married taxpayers and civil partners (joint
return, Zusammenveranlagung), the zero-bracket amount
(Grundfreibetrag) is doubled.