Self-employment is restricted to holders of tertiary level vocational degrees
In 41 crafts professions, including in the construction industry (painters,
plasters, bricklayers, scaffolders and installation of heating and cooling installations)
self-employment is restricted to holders of tertiary level vocational degrees.
Alternatively,workers in these professions can open a business with a minimum work experience of
six years, four of them in a managing position, in addition to the vocational education degree
at the upper secondary level required to exercise the profession. These requirements raise
entry barriers for self-employment. Self-regulation by sector-specific business chambers,
notably in the professional services and the crafts, also risks protecting incumbents.