A specific form of education is the dual study system, which combines vocational training
with university studies and offers graduates both certificates with a time advantage of
about one year. A growing number of dual agricultural studies courses are offered at
currently 13 universities of applied sciences or universities of cooperative education
Besides the above described formal education system, there are several private institutions
offering advanced professional training some of which lead to certificates. Leading actor to
be mentioned here is the Andreas Hermes Academy (AHA), the central further education
institution of the German agriculture and food industry.