There are four free-trade zones in Germany established and operated under EU law:
Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven, Deggendorf and Duisburg. These duty-free zones within ports also
permit value-added processing and manufacturing for EU-external markets, albeit with certain
All of them are open to both domestic and foreign entities. In recent years, falling
tariffs and the progressive enlargement of the EU have gradually eroded much of the utility and
attractiveness of duty-free zones. Kiel and Emden lost free-trade zone status in 2010.
Hamburg lost free-trade zone status in 2013.