Several professional services are subject to extensive exclusivity rules that reserve
activities to particular professions.
In some of these activities, other OECD countries have
eased such rules with substantial reductions in costs (OECD, 2014a), for example for legal
services needed to create a new business.
Shareholder requirements in a wide range of
professional services require that the certified professionals themselves must be majority
owners in their businesses. There are binding price regulations for notaries, architects and
building engineers. Advertising continues to be restricted in some professional services.