In 41 crafts professions, including in the construction industry (painters,
plasters, bricklayers, scaffolders and installation of heating and cooling installations)
self-employment is restricted to holders of tertiary level vocational degrees.
Alternatively,workers in these professions can open a business with a minimum work experience of
six years, four of them in a managing position, in addition to the vocational education degree
at the upper secondary level required to exercise the profession. These requirements raise
entry barriers for self-employment. Self-regulation by sector-specific business chambers,
notably in the professional services and the crafts, also risks protecting incumbents.