These skilled workers, primarily trained under the dual system, are the back-
bone of the German labour market. Of the approximately 36 m economically
dependent workers in Germany in 2015, almost 53% have completed an
apprenticeship or comparable professional qualification. This standardised
education enables these employees to be trusted with various roles within their
professional field without the need for lengthy induction thus reinforcing
production quality and flexibility.
Higher and/or academic qualifications have become increasingly important in
light of globalisation, digitalisation and the increasing integration of industrial
and service-based value creation.
Germany has made plenty of progress in this
respect. Between 2005 and 2014 the number of university graduates has
increased by more than half to 314,000.